Whatever you read on latest Object Identification Technology in market you will come to know about Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology. Surprising fact is that it is not a new technology; it was first used over sixty years ago by Britain to identify friend and foe aircraft in World War II and was part of refinement of Radar.
RFID is evolving as a major technology enabler for identifying and tracking objects (such as Goods, Asset, Persons, Animals). It helps organizations in locating critical objects more quickly to improve process efficiency and accuracy and also promises to enable new efficiencies in the supply chain by tracking goods from the point of manufacture through to the retail point of sale.
Navigation and positioning are crucial to so many activities and yet the process has always been quite cumbersome and inexact. In the earliest days mankind used the stars to navigate. Early instruments also cited the stars to determine position. The science of horology began in part because navigation depended on precise timing the movement of the stars.
Over the years all kinds of technologies have tried to simplify the task but everyone has had some disadvantage. Finally, the U.S. Department of Defense decided that the military had to have a precise form of worldwide positioning. Fortunately they had the deep pockets it took to build something really good. The result is the Global Positioning System, a system that’s changed navigation forever.
GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the user’s exact location. Essentially, the GPS receiver compares the time a signal was transmitted by a satellite with the time it was received. The time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the satellite is. With distance measurements from a few more satellites, the receiver can determine the user’s position and display it on the unit’s electronic map.
A GPS receiver must be locked on to the signal of at least three satellites to calculate a 2D position (latitude and longitude) and track movement. With four or more satellites in view, the receiver can determine the user’s 3D position (latitude, longitude and altitude). Once the user’s position has been determined, the GPS unit can calculate other information, such as speed, bearing, track, trip distance, distance to destination, sunrise and sunset time and more.
Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer based information system used to digitally represent and analyze the geographic features present on the Earth’ surface and the events (non-spatial attributes linked to the geography under study) that taking place on it. The meaning to represent digitally is to convert analog (smooth line) into a digital form.
A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts. GIS helps in answering questions or solving problems by looking at data in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared. GIS technology can be integrated into any enterprise information system framework.
Mapping things where they are; helps to find places that have the features required, and to see where to take an action.
Map quantities, like where the most and least are, to find places that meet their criteria and take action, or to see the relationships between places. This gives an additional level of information beyond simply mapping the locations of features.
More than 5 billion people worldwide use the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) family of technologies. GSM, Global system of Mobile, is a popular Mobile communication system provided by Cellular service providers or GSM Operators in most countries internationally. It is used for in most mobile handsets used by us. GSM Mobile communication system can be intelligently used by electronic devices which can collect some data and send it to the central place using SMS or GSM data call. GSM is required in Vehicle tracking systems because GPS system can normally only receive location information from satellites but cannot communicate back with them. Hence user needs some other communication system like GSM to send this location information to central control room. Other technologies can also be used but they are more costly.
General Packet Radio Service is new communication services introduced by GSM operators. These services are part of same GSM network. These services allow secure and confirmed transfer of content like digital photos or other data to other GPRS capable system. Example of services based on GPRS is MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) GPRS is required in case user wants to take snaps and transfer them to the central control room. They are not required for GPS tracking etc. GPRS does not involve additional hardware but user needs to use more advanced GSM modules which support GPRS. GPRS services are not provided by all GSM operators.