Technology

RFID Technology


About RFID Technology

Whatever you read on latest Object Identification Technology in market you will come to know about Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology. Surprising fact is that it is not a new technology; it was first used over sixty years ago by Britain to identify friend and foe aircraft in World War II and was part of refinement of Radar.

RFID is evolving as a major technology enabler for identifying and tracking objects (such as Goods, Asset, Persons, Animals). It helps organizations in locating critical objects more quickly to improve process efficiency and accuracy and also promises to enable new efficiencies in the supply chain by tracking goods from the point of manufacture through to the retail point of sale.

RFID Solution components

  • An antenna or coil.
  • A transceiver (with decoder)
  • A transponder (RF tag) electronically programmed with unique information
  • The antenna emits radio signals to activate the tag and to read and write data to it.
  • The reader emits radio waves in ranges of anywhere from one inch to 100 feet or more, depending upon its power output and the radio frequency used. When an RFID tag passes through the electromagnetic zone, it detects the reader’s activation signal.
  • The reader decodes the data encoded in the tag’s integrated circuit (silicon chip) and the data is passed to the host computer for processing.

Advantages of using RFID Technology

  • RFID tags are rugged and robust and can work in harsh temperatures and environments.
  • RFID Tags are Customizable according to the application / usage
  • RFID tags in Most applications can be detected ”hands off”
  • RFID tags can be placed inside the packaging or even in the product itself
  • Direct physical contact between the tags and the reader is not required.
  • Multiple RFID tags can be read at the same time.
  • Customizable Solutions, Integration with other System also possible
  • RFID technology is better than bar codes as it cannot be easily replicated
  • RFID Enabled solution increases the security of the product
  • RFID systems play a key role by managing updates of stocks, transportation and logistics of the product, in product supply chain
  • The RFID system works at a remarkably high speed, even in adverse conditions
  • RFID Systems are able to reduce the need of Human intervention and provides process automation

GPS Technology


About GPS Technology

Navigation and positioning are crucial to so many activities and yet the process has always been quite cumbersome and inexact. In the earliest days mankind used the stars to navigate. Early instruments also cited the stars to determine position. The science of horology began in part because navigation depended on precise timing the movement of the stars.

Over the years all kinds of technologies have tried to simplify the task but everyone has had some disadvantage. Finally, the U.S. Department of Defense decided that the military had to have a precise form of worldwide positioning. Fortunately they had the deep pockets it took to build something really good. The result is the Global Positioning System, a system that’s changed navigation forever.

How GPS works

GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the user’s exact location. Essentially, the GPS receiver compares the time a signal was transmitted by a satellite with the time it was received. The time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the satellite is. With distance measurements from a few more satellites, the receiver can determine the user’s position and display it on the unit’s electronic map.

A GPS receiver must be locked on to the signal of at least three satellites to calculate a 2D position (latitude and longitude) and track movement. With four or more satellites in view, the receiver can determine the user’s 3D position (latitude, longitude and altitude). Once the user’s position has been determined, the GPS unit can calculate other information, such as speed, bearing, track, trip distance, distance to destination, sunrise and sunset time and more.

GIS Technology


About GIS Technology

Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer based information system used to digitally represent and analyze the geographic features present on the Earth’ surface and the events (non-spatial attributes linked to the geography under study) that taking place on it. The meaning to represent digitally is to convert analog (smooth line) into a digital form.

A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts. GIS helps in answering questions or solving problems by looking at data in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared. GIS technology can be integrated into any enterprise information system framework.

 

What can be done with GIS

Map where things are:

Mapping things where they are; helps to find places that have the features required, and to see where to take an action.

  • Find a feature—people use maps to see where or what an individual feature is.
  • Finding patterns—looking at the distribution of features on the map instead of just an individual feature, you can see patterns emerge.
Map quantities:

Map quantities, like where the most and least are, to find places that meet their criteria and take action, or to see the relationships between places. This gives an additional level of information beyond simply mapping the locations of features.

Importance of GIS

  • GIS technology is to geographical analysis what the microscope, the telescope, and computers have been to other sciences. It could therefore be the catalyst needed to dissolve the regional-systematic and human- physical dichotomies that have long plagued geography and other disciplines which use spatial information.
  • GIS integrates spatial and other kinds of information within a single system – it offers a consistent framework for analyzing geographical data.
  • By putting maps and other kinds of spatial information into digital form, GIS allows us to manipulate and display geographical knowledge in new and exciting ways.
  • GIS makes connections between activities based on geographic proximity;
    • looking at data geographically can often suggest new insights, explanations
    • these connections are often unrecognized without GIS, but can be vital to understanding and managing activities and resources
    • e.g. we can link toxic waste records with school locations through geographic proximity
  • GIS allows access to administrative records – property ownership, tax files, utility cables and pipes – via their geographical positions.

GSM Technology


More than 5 billion people worldwide use the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) family of technologies. GSM, Global system of Mobile, is a popular Mobile communication system provided by Cellular service providers or GSM Operators in most countries internationally. It is used for in most mobile handsets used by us. GSM Mobile communication system can be intelligently used by electronic devices which can collect some data and send it to the central place using SMS or GSM data call. GSM is required in Vehicle tracking systems because GPS system can normally only receive location information from satellites but cannot communicate back with them. Hence user needs some other communication system like GSM to send this location information to central control room. Other technologies can also be used but they are more costly.

GPRS Technology


General Packet Radio Service is new communication services introduced by GSM operators. These services are part of same GSM network. These services allow secure and confirmed transfer of content like digital photos or other data to other GPRS capable system. Example of services based on GPRS is MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) GPRS is required in case user wants to take snaps and transfer them to the central control room. They are not required for GPS tracking etc. GPRS does not involve additional hardware but user needs to use more advanced GSM modules which support GPRS. GPRS services are not provided by all GSM operators.

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